The article analyzes the nature of trade relations between the Russian and
German empires in the late XIXth and early XXth centuries. Particular attention is paid to
the grain trade, which was at that time the main item of the Russian export to Germany.
The volume of Russian grain exports to the German Empire is indicated as well as the
influence of trade agreements of 1894 and 1904 on its structure and dynamics of change.
The competition between the two countries in the sphere of grain trade in the markets
of several European countries, as well as some regions of the Russian Empire (Finland) is