Formation of the «united front» policy of the Comintern and the Soviet foreign policy of 1921–1922

Shubin A.V.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the consideration of the policy of the Comintern in the context of the foreign policy of the Soviet state in 1921–1922. The author shows that the dynamics of the Comintern's policy were not directly tied to the Soviet foreign policy course and the turn to the NEP in March 1921. The Comintern had its own internal logic of development. With its help, the communist leadership could maneuver between a more radical probing of the capitalist world's readiness for a new wave of revolutionary destabilization or a moderate policy of a prolonged «siege» of capitalism, which implied rapprochement with social democracy under the slogan of a «united workers' front». By the beginning of 1922, after sharp discussions on the eve and during the III Congress of the Comintern, its policy gradually synchronized with the foreign policy course of Soviet Russia, which made it possible to use the rapprochement with Western European social democracy in Soviet foreign interests. However, the diplomatic gain from this turned out to be insignificant, and after the failure of the Genoa Conference, the Comintern continued to pursue a «united front» policy no longer directly related to the tasks of the NKID, but as the basis of the communist strategy of the struggle for power in Western Europe. At the same time, both during negotiations with the Social Democrats and in planning at the IV Congress of the Comintern, the Communists proceeded based on the priority of their monopoly on power, considering the policy of alliances and concessions as tactical and temporary, abandoning the «political NEP» and the pluralistic model of multiparty democratic socialism.

Keywords

Comintern; the Genoa Conference of 1922; Lenin; Zinoviev; Radek; the March action of 1921; the United Workers' Front.

DOI: 10.31249/rsm/2023.03.09

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